The reply of the Sunní

The reply of the Sunní (orthodox) believer to the Necessitarian infidel, and the proof by which he established the power of choice possessed by (every) servant of God. The Sunna is a road trodden by the feet of the prophets, on whom be peace. On the right hand of that road lies the desert of Necessity (jabr), where he (the Necessitarian) regards himself as having no power of choice and denies the (Divine) command and prohibition and employs (false) interpretation (ta’wíl); and from the (Divine) command and prohibition being denied there necessarily follows the denial of Paradise, since Paradise is the reward of those who obey the (Divine) command, while Hell is the reward of those who disobey it. I will not state to what else it ultimately leads: an indication is enough for the wise. And on the left hand of that road lies the desert of Free-will (qadar), where he (who holds that doctrine) regards the power of the Creator as overcome by the power of the creatures; and thence arise the corruptions (vicious opinions) which have been enumerated (above) by the Magian who was a Necessitarian. جواب گفتن ممن سنی کافر جبری را و در اثبات اختیار بنده دلیل گفتن سنت راهی باشد کوفته‌ی اقدام انبیا علیهم‌السلام بر یمین آن راه بیابان جبر کی خود را اختیار نبیند و امر و نهی را منکر شود و تاویل کند و از منکر شدن امر و نهی لازم آید انکار بهشت کی جزای مطیعان امرست و دوزخ جزای مخالفان امر و دیگر نگویم بچه انجامد کی العاقل تکفیه الاشاره و بر یسار آن راه بیابان قدرست کی قدرت خالق را مغلوب قدرت خلق داند و از آن آن فسادها زاید کی آن مغ جبری بر می‌شمرد

گفت ممن بشنو ای جبری خطاب آن خود گفتی نک آوردم جواب
The true believer replied, “O Necessitarian, hear the words addressed (to you); you have said your say: lo, I bring the answer.
بازی خود دیدی ای شطرنج‌باز بازی خصمت ببین پهن و دراز
You have seen your own game, O chess-player: (now) see your adversary’s game in all its breadth and length.
نامه‌ی عذر خودت بر خواندی نامه‌ی سنی بخوان چه ماندی
You have read (to me) your letter of apology: (now) read the Sunní’s letter. Why have you remained (an infidel)?
نکته گفتی جبریانه در قضا سر آن بشنو ز من در ماجرا
You have discoursed in Necessitarian fashion on the (Divine) destiny: (now) hear from me the mystery thereof in (this) debate.
اختیاری هست ما را بی‌گمان حس را منکر نتانی شد عیان
Beyond doubt we possess a certain power of choice: you cannot plainly deny the (inward) sense (of being free to choose).
سنگ را هرگز بگوید کس بیا از کلوخی کس کجا جوید وفا
One never says ‘Come’ to a stone: how should any one request a brickbat to keep faith?
آدمی را کس نگوید هین بپر یا بیا ای کور تو در من نگر
One never says to a human being, ‘Hey, fly!’ or ‘Come, O blind man, and look at me!’
گفت یزدان ما علی الاعمی حرج کی نهد بر کس حرج رب الفرج
God hath said, ‘There is nothing intolerable (laid) upon the blind’: how should the Lord who bestows relief lay upon any one what is intolerable?
کس نگوید سنگ را دیر آمدی یا که چوبا تو چرا بر من زدی
Nobody says to a stone, ‘Thou hast come late’ or (to a stick), ‘Why didst thou strike a blow at me, O stick?’
این چنین واجستها مجبور را کس بگوید یا زند معذور را
Will any one address demands like these to a person who is compelled, or strike a person who is excused (from complying with them)?
امر و نهی و خشم و تشریف و عتاب نیست جز مختار را ای پاک‌جیب
Command and prohibition and anger and conferment of honour and (bestowal of) rebuke concern him (only) who possesses the power of choice, O pure-bosomed one.
اختیاری هست در ظلم و ستم من ازین شیطان و نفس این خواستم
There is (such) a power of choice in regard to injustice and wrong-doing: this (is what) I meant by this Devil and carnal soul.
اختیار اندر درونت ساکنست تا ندید او یوسفی کف را نخست
The power of choice resides in your inward part, (but) it does not wound its hand till it sees a Joseph.
اختیار و داعیه در نفس بود روش دید آنگه پر و بالی گشود
The power of choice and the instinct (to choose) were (latent) in the soul: (when) it beheld his (Joseph’s) face, then it spread wings and pinions (to fly towards him).
سگ بخفته اختیارش گشته گم چون شکنبه دید جنبانید دم
When the dog is asleep its power of choice is lost, (but) when it sees the tripe it wags its tail.
اسپ هم حو حو کند چون دید جو چون بجنبد گوشت گربه کرد مو
A horse, too, whinnies when he sees barley, and when the meat is moved, the cat miauls.
دیدن آمد جنبش آن اختیار هم‌چو نفخی ز آتش انگیزد شرار
Sight (of the desired object) is the means of moving the power of choice (to exert itself), just as a blowing (of breath) raises sparks from the fire.
پس بجنبد اختیارت چون بلیس شد دلاله آردت پیغام ویس
Therefore your power of choice is moved (to action) when Iblís becomes a go-between (dallála) and brings (to you) a message from Wís.
چونک مطلوبی برین کس عرضه کرد اختیار خفته بگشاید نورد
When he presents an object of desire to this person (who possesses the power of choice), the sleeping power unrolls itself (begins to move towards that object); 
وآن فرشته خیرها بر رغم دیو عرضه دارد می‌کند در دل غریو
And (on the other hand), in despite of the Devil, the Angel presents (to you) good objects (of desire) and makes an outcry in your heart,
تا بجنبد اختیار خیر تو زانک پیش از عرضه خفتست این دو خو
In order that your power to choose the good may be moved (to action); for, before presentation, these two dispositions (towards good or evil) are asleep.
پس فرشته و دیو گشته عرضه‌دار بهر تحریک عروق اختیار
So the Angel and the Devil have become presenters (of good or evil objects of desire) for the purpose of setting the power of choice in motion.
می‌شود ز الهامها و وسوسه اختیار خیر و شرت ده کسه
Your power to choose good or evil is increased tenfold by inspirations (of the Angel) and suggestions (of the Devil).
وقت تحلیل نماز ای با نمک زان سلام آورد باید بر ملک
Hence, when thy ritual prayer is finished, O excellent man, it behoves thee to offer a salutation to the Angels,
که ز الهام و دعای خوبتان اختیار این نمازم شد روان
Saying, ‘Through your goodly inspiration and incitement, my power to choose this ritual prayer was set going.’
باز از بعد گنه لعنت کنی بر بلیس ایرا کزویی منحنی
Again, after (having committed) sin thou wilt curse Iblís, because through him thou art inclined (to wards sin).
این دو ضد عرضه کننده‌ت در سرار در حجاب غیب آمد عرضه‌دار
These two adversaries are making offers to thee in secret and presenting (objects of desire) in the (state of phenomenal existence which is a) curtain over the Unseen.
چونک پرده‌ی غیب برخیزد ز پیش تو ببینی روی دلالان خویش
When the curtain over the Unseen is raised from before thee, thou wilt behold the faces of thy (two) brokers,
وآن سخنشان وا شناسی بی‌گزند که آن سخن‌گویان نهان اینها بدند
And from their words wilt recognise without trouble that these were they who spoke (to thee) invisibly.
دیو گوید ای اسیر طبع و تن عرضه می‌کردم نکردم زور من
The Devil will say, ‘O thou who art a captive to thy (sensual) nature and body, I was (only) presenting to thee (objects of desire): I did not force (them upon thee).’
وآن فرشته گویدت من گفتمت که ازین شادی فزون گردد غمت
And the Angel will say, ‘I told thee that thy sorrow would be increased in consequence of this (sensual) joy.
آن فلان روزت نگفتم من چنان که از آن سویست ره سوی جنان
Did not I tell thee on such and such a day that the way to Paradise is in that (spiritual) direction?
ما محب جان و روح افزای تو ساجدان مخلص بابای تو
(That) we are lovers of thy soul and fosterers of thy spirit and sincere worshippers of thy Father?
این زمانت خدمتی هم می‌کنیم سوی مخدومی صلایت می‌زنیم
(That) at this time also we are serving thee and inviting thee (to advance) towards sovereignty?
آن گره بابات را بوده عدی در خطاب اسجدوا کرده ابا
(And that) that party (the Devils) were thy Father’s enemies who refused to obey the (Divine) command, Worship (Adam)?
آن گرفتی آن ما انداختی حق خدمتهای ما نشناختی
Thou didst accept that (offer made by them), thou didst reject ours: thou didst not acknowledge the debt (of gratitude) due for our services.
این زمان ما را و ایشان را عیان در نگر بشناس از لحن و بیان
Now look on us and them in clear view, and recognise (each party) by voice and speech.’
نیم شب چون بشنوی رازی ز دوست چون سخن گوید سحر دانی که اوست
If you hear a secret from a friend at midnight, you will know that it was he when he speaks (to you again) at dawn;
ور دو کس در شب خبر آرد ترا روز از گفتن شناسی هر دو را
And if two persons bring news to you in the night, you will recognise both of them in the daytime by their (manner of) speaking.
بانگ شیر و بانگ سگ در شب رسید صورت هر دو ز تاریکی ندید
(If) during the night the sound of a lion and the sound of a dog have come (into some one’s ear) and he has not seen their forms on account of the darkness,
روز شد چون باز در بانگ آمدند پس شناسدشان ز بانگ آن هوشمند
When day breaks and they begin to make (the same) sound again, the intelligent (hearer) will know them by the sound (which they make).
مخلص این که دیو و روح عرضه‌دار هر دو هستند از تتمه‌ی اختیار
The upshot is this, that both the Devil and the (angelic) Spirit who present (objects of desire to us) exist for the purpose of completing (actualising) the power of choice.
اختیاری هست در ما ناپدید چون دو مطلب دید آید در مزید
There is an invisible power of choice within us; when it sees two (alternative) objects of desire it waxes strong.
اوستادان کودکان را می‌زنند آن ادب سنگ سیه را کی کنند
Teachers beat (school-)children: how should they inflict that correction upon a black stone?
هیچ گویی سنگ را فردا بیا ور نیایی من دهم بد را سزا
Do you ever say to a stone, ‘Come to-morrow; and if you don’t come, I will give your bad behaviour the punishment it deserves’?
هیچ عاقل مر کلوخی را زند هیچ با سنگی عتابی کس کند
Does any reasonable man strike a brickbat? Does any one reprove a stone?
در خرد جبر از قدر رسواترست زانک جبری حس خود را منکرست
In (the eyes of) reason, Necessitarianism (jabr) is more shameful than the doctrine of (absolute) Free-will (qadar), because the Necessitarian is denying his own (inward) sense.
منکر حس نیست آن مرد قدر فعل حق حسی نباشد ای پسر
The man who holds the doctrine of (absolute) free-will does not deny his (inward) sense; the action
منکر فعل خداوند جلیل هست در انکار مدلول دلیل
He who denies the action of the Almighty Lord is (virtually) denying Him who is indicated by the indication.
آن بگوید دود هست و نار نی نور شمعی بی ز شمعی روشنی
That one (the believer in absolute Free-will) says, ‘There is smoke, but no fire; there is candle-light without any resplendent candle’;
وین همی‌بیند معین نار را نیست می‌گوید پی انکار را
And this one (the Necessitarian) sees the fire plainly, (but) for the sake of denial he says it does not exist.
جامه‌اش سوزد بگوید نار نیست جامه‌اش دوزد بگوید تار نیست
It burns his raiment, (yet) he says, ‘There is no fire’; it (the thread) stitches his raiment, (yet) he says, ‘There is no thread.’
پس تسفسط آمد این دعوی جبر لاجرم بدتر بود زین رو ز گبر
Hence this doctrine of Necessity is Sophisticism (Scepticism): consequently he (the Necessitarian), from this point of view, is worse than the infidel (believer in absolute Free-will).
گبر گوید هست عالم نیست رب یا ربی گوید که نبود مستحب
The infidel says, ‘The world exists, (but) there is no Lord’: he says that (the invocation) ‘O my Lord!’ is not to be approved.
این همی گوید جهان خود نیست هیچ هسته سوفسطایی اندر پیچ پیچ
This one (the Necessitarian) says, ‘The world is really naught’: the Sophist (Sceptic) is in a tangle (of error).
جمله‌ی عالم مقر در اختیار امر و نهی این میار و آن بیار
The whole world acknowledges (the reality of) the power of choice: (the proof is) their commanding and forbidding (each other) ‘Bring this and do not bring that!’
او همی گوید که امر و نهی لاست اختیاری نیست این جمله خطاست
He (the Necessitarian) says that commanding and forbidding are naught and that there is no power of choice. All this (doctrine) is erroneous.
حس را حیوان مقرست ای رفیق لیک ادراک دلیل آمد دقیق
Animals (too) acknowledge (the reality of) the (inward) sense, O comrade, but it is a subtle (difficult) matter to apprehend the proof (of this).
زانک محسوسست ما را اختیار خوب می‌آید برو تکلیف کار
Inasmuch as (the reality of) our power of choice is perceived by the (inward) sense, responsibility for actions may well be laid upon it.




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